By Keith W. Waldron
This e-book presents a finished and systematic reference at the complex biomass restoration and conversion procedures utilized in biorefineries. the 1st a part of the publication stories advancements in biorefining methods, through a evaluation of alternative sorts of biorefinery platform. the second one half the ebook discusses the big variety of extra worth items from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives.
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Extra resources for Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation
8. Reduce derivatives Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. 9. Catalysis Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents. 10. Design for degradation Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.
Use of renewable feedstocks A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable. 8. Reduce derivatives Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste. 9. Catalysis Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.
In the Review of Waste Policy issued by DEFRA in June 2011, launching a zero waste economy plan, the UK Government announced it will work with industry to drive innovation in reuse and recycling for materials, such as metals, textiles and all biodegradable waste (DEFRA, 2011). The EU issued new FP7 funding calls for 2012 mentioning that ‘research is needed to develop innovative concepts and practical approaches that would add value to and find markets for food waste of plant and dairy origin’ (CORDIS, 2011).
Advances in biorefineries: Biomass and waste supply chain exploitation by Keith W. Waldron