By Alan Barnard
The Bushman is a perennial yet altering picture. The transformation of that snapshot is necessary. It symbolizes the belief of Bushman or San society, of the information and values of ethnographers who've labored with Bushman peoples, and people of alternative anthropologists who use this paintings. Anthropology and the Bushman covers early guests and settlers, vintage 19th and twentieth-century ethnographers, North American and jap ecological traditions, the methods of African ethnographers, and up to date paintings on advocacy and social improvement. It finds the effect of Bushman reviews on anthropology and at the public. The booklet highlights how Bushman or San ethnography has contributed to anthropological controversy, for instance within the debates at the measure of incorporation of San society in the wider political economic system, and at the validity of the case for "indigenous rights" as a unique form of human rights. reading the altering picture of the Bushman, Barnard offers a brand new contribution to a longtime anthropology debate.
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Extra info for Anthropology and the Bushman
For accurate description, anthropology was at the mercy of travellers. Its task was to compile, interpret and generalize, with the ultimate goal being the understanding of the various stages of human development and the mechanism of human social evolution. Lubbock was one of the few major figures of nineteenth-century ethnology or social anthropology to mention Bushmen. J. F. H. Morgan, all published in the 1860s and 1870s. Theodor Waitz (1863: 334), in his Introduction to Anthropology, simply reports that along with the inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, the Australian Aborigines and some South-East Asian peoples, the Bushmen (Bosjesmans) ‘occupy the lowest scale in civilization’, although rather more references to Bushmen and Bushman custom appear in his six-volume Anthropologie der Naturvölker (Waitz 1859–72).
Theophilus Hahn and others reported the existence of living artists in South Africa and the German territory of South-West Africa (modern Namibia) in the nineteenth century, and the existence of rock paintings of ox wagons undoubtedly confirms their elusive presence. Stow’s second-hand account is famous: The last-known Bushman artist of the Malutis was shot in the Witteberg Native Reserve, where he had been on a marauding expedition, and had captured some horses. He was evidently a man of considerable repute among his race.
But it was not only in that field that such a degree of generalization was maintained. Even in historical studies we find examples like: Bushmen: frame dwarfish, colour yellowish brown, face fox-like in outline, eyes small and deeply sunk, head dotted over with little knots of twisted hair not much larger than Anthro & Bushman 4/3/07 9:18 am Page 30 30 • Anthropology and the Bushman pepper-corns, ears without lobes, stomach protuberant, back exceedingly hollow, limbs slender; weapons bow and poisoned arrow; pursuits those of a hunter; government none but parental; habitations caverns or mats spread over branches of trees; domestic animal the dog; demeanour that of perfect independence; language abounding in clicks and in deep guttural sounds.
Anthropology and the Bushman by Alan Barnard