By Sammy C. Letema
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Extra resources for Assessing Sanitary Mixtures in East African Cities
Calls for private provision of water and sanitary services seems to be a mirage and a strategy to dismantle or reduce the public sector in delivery of essential public services, but it has failed as investments in water and sanitary infrastructures are still coming from the public sector and account for about 90% even during the height of privatisation (Castro, 2008). Having been the main proponents and drivers of private utility provision until recently, the World Bank has acknowledged that multinational private monopolies are neither investors nor developers, but profiteers (Bayliss, 2003; Castro, 2008).
2 Private utility provision In neoclassical economic theory, the role of government is viewed to be limited to ensuring markets operate freely, with services dictated by supply and demand, maximization of utility and profit, which in turn, drive production and consumption processes. Private companies are not new in water and sanitary services, with (Budds & McGranahan, 2003) noting that the first water and sanitation services were provided by the private sector to well-to-do communities who were able and willing to pay.
The siphons constructed in 1960s, Kitante East and part of low level, are not working; the Lugogo siphon is partially operational while penstocks in most siphons are either missing or not working properly (NWSC, 2008). The sewers are generally dug at a reasonable depth with an average depth of about 2 m. However, some 5% of the sewers are deeper than 4 m, with extreme depths of 8-15 m in Upper Kitante West, making safe access for maintenance at such depths very difficult. Some 5% of the sewers are laid with a cover of less than 1 m (NWSC, 2004).
Assessing Sanitary Mixtures in East African Cities by Sammy C. Letema