By A. M. El-Agraa
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Extra info for Britain within the European Community: The Way Forward
Unemployment and stagnation make the adjustments History, Politics and Institutions of the EC 35 caused by trade hard to take, and the danger of a rise of protection among the member states has been only too apparent. On the whole, the member governments' efforts to grapple with the problem of stagflation have been inimical to integration, whether through German resistance to further monetary integration for fear of infection from other member countries' inflation and of the cost of supporting their currencies, or through the weaker countries' industrial policies which may amount to protection within the common market.
Neither interest rates nor exchange rates should be too high. Both are subject to powerful international influences, particularly from the United States; and whereas the single European countries are powerless to resist these influences, the Community as a whole could do so if it had adequate instruments of monetary intervention such as a Reserve Fund with which to buy or sell dollars on a sufficient scale and, if necessary, an exchange control for the Community as a whole. Industrial development, with the high cost of new investment and of adjustment away from old capacity, also needs to be promoted by various means such as subsidies for research and development, incentives for invest;nent, adjustment assistance and rationalisation programmes, which are seen in their most advanced form in Japan but are also practised to a greater or lesser degree in all the Community countries.
But the chances of its doing so depend on the type of policies pursued and on how well they deal with the stagflation. For successful policies would not only counter the disintegrative forces but would, it will be argued, imply a further degree of integration. If stagflation were caused by monetary disorder, it would be cured by monetary control. With free movement of money across frontiers, it might be supposed that the monetary control should be exercised by institutions beyond the nation state, such as the European Community or the International Monetary Fund; and since the Community has a stronger political capacity to exercise such control, this would seem to imply a central bank and a common currency for the Community, as envisaged by the Werner Report.
Britain within the European Community: The Way Forward by A. M. El-Agraa